Differentiating Keys/Hints for Tricky Species

horseweed Erigeron canadensis vs fireweed Erechtites hieraciifolius

Arisaema dracontiyn and Arisaema triphyllum differences https://anps.org/2015/05/15/know-your-natives-jack-in-the-pulpit-green-dragon/

Greater celandine and celandine poppy

Iris versicolor vs Iris virginica (northern vs southern blue flag)
It is difficult to differentiate as both have similar growth habits, floral colors, and bloom times; often sold interchangeably as blue flag iris. One major differentiator may be native range, but as these overlap, this can't be the primary distinguishing factor. The signal (the colorful patch on the sepal) may be different: Iris versicolor is greenish-yellow, rather flat, with few to no hairs and surrounded by a background of dark purple veins against a more or less white background. Iris virginica tends to be bright yellow, usually with a lot of obvious soft hairs with veining not as prominent as in Iris versicolor. Another differentiator: height of leaves along the flower-stem (cauline leaves) (1). I. virginica: typically extend above the flowers; I. versicolor usually shorter or similar in height to the flowers. https://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheet/rain-garden-plants-iris-versicolor-and-iris-virginica/ (lightly edited)

Resource from U of M Herbarium: https://michiganflora.net/genus.aspx?id=Viola

Genus Russula
Russula sanguinea was described from a European mushroom and therefore probably isn't here in North America at all. The name has been applied to many red Russula in N. A. adding to the confusion. Out west where it may be sorted it is being called Russula rhodocephala which itself is a lookalike for Russula americana but under different trees according to Danny Miller http://www.alpental.com/psms/ddd/Russula/index.htm. Mushroomexpert's Kuo and Mycoquebec say that a lookalike under oaks in the east is Russula tenuiceps or R. sanguinaria under conifers/pines, but it is probably a group of species, and also not the same as the European one in the case of R. sanguinaria. We are trying to downvote these identifications for this reason. Hopefully, any people interested in identifying mushrooms will pitch in and help to vote any Russula that is being called Russula sanguinea in the eastern US back to genus level anyway, but we are concerned with a few other species too. Read fungee's journal post https://tinyurl.com/y9qqjf3z. Check out the master list https://tinyurl.com/y72e7fsb. Another thing that is daunting for Russula ID, there are well over a hundred known red Russula in the east, many are not named yet, and, if they are, the name is not in use

  • fungee disagrees this is Russula sanguinea Bloody Brittlegill

    Identifying Canada Bunchberry species

Info courtesy of Dennis Rousse
C. canadensis Leaves- one small pair then a whorl at top. Veins prominent & arched arising from lower part (not base) of midrib. vs
C. suecica Leaves- 3 pairs (or more) below top, which is less whorled, all lateral veins originate from (or near) base.

Differentiating Langloisia setosissima ssp setosissima vs ssp punctata

Rough list of differentiating factors: Needs to be confirmed

-Petal pattern Stripes/very pale spots, no yellow
-Flower color Lavender, white, no dark center
-Stamens Stamens grey/light purple
-Leaf shape Center lobe with 2ndary minor lobes
-Bloom period Blooms Jan - June

-Petal pattern Strong spots, often w/ yellow; may have stripes
-Flower color Lavender, white, Dark center
-Stamens Stamens grey/light purple; c/b white
-Leaf shape Center lobe with 2 pronounced secondary lobes
-Bloom period Blooms Feb - June

Virginia Creeper vs Thicket Creeper
Parthenocissus inserta vs P. quinquefolia

P. inserta (aka P. vitacea) Virginia Creeper (American ivy) has aerial roots, hairy leaf stalks and new stems, and tendrils with up to 10 short branches (1½ inches long or less) that eventually develop flat adhesive disks or pads at the tip;

Less consistent:
Virginia Creeper tends to be high-climbing, though may sprawl when there is nothing to climb; flower clusters usually have a well-defined central stalk (not always an obvious trait) and often 150+ flowers in a cluster; leaflets are usually dull green, though may be shiny when young.
Both surfaces of Virginia Creeper leaflets are usually stiff hairy, especially along the veins,

P. quinquefolia, Woodbine (false virginia creeper, thicket creeper) lacks aerial roots, has hairless stalks and stems, and its tendrils branch only 2 or 3 times, the branches more than 1½ inches long and not normally developing disks at the tip, but wedge themselves into cracks and expand to hold themselves in place (this expansion may appear to be a disk, but is not adhesive, and per Welby Smith's “Trees and Shrubs of Minnesota”, Woodbine may actually develop the disks on occasion).

Less consistent:
Thicket creeper is more often sprawling but does also climb up trees, fences and other structures; forked branches without a central axis and tends to be fewer flowered, only to 75 flowers per cluster; leaflets tend to be shiny but can lose their sheen with age, and are more often hairless, especially along veins on the upper surface, though the lower surface of leaflets can be short-hairy.

All of these traits are variable, so any one of them should not be taken individually, but in combination with each other and the more obvious differences. Look first for the aerial roots, hairs on stems and stalks, and number and length of tendril branches. Go from there.

Sources: Minnesota Wildflowers https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info; iNat; Michigan Wildflowers app for Android;

Publicado el mayo 9, 2021 11:16 TARDE por kitkestrel kitkestrel


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