Unknown stem galls on Common Mugwort

This is a story about an unknown gall former, and the story is still only partly understood.

Last summer (August 2020) in Central Park and on Randall's Island, I found six stem galls on the very common and extremely invasive weed Common Mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris. The galls look like this one:


@steven-cyclist was with me several times when I found them, and he probably also photographed one or two of them.

I had never noticed these galls on mugwort before 2020, so I photographed them all, but I had no luck working out what the gall-making organism was that had caused the galls to form.

Fortunately iNatter @jeffmollenhauer is a lot more of a thorough and persistent naturalist than I am. Jeff collected some of these galls in New Jersey. Jeff then carefully cut one gall open, and photographed the larva that was inside the gall. It appeared to be a beetle larva:


Jeff also carefully saved a few of the intact galls to see what hatched out in the next spring or summer.

Sure enough, this spring, 2021, beetles started hatching out, like this one:


It is a Tumbling Flower Beetle, in the genus Mordellistena.

However, it seems that the beetle is almost certainly not the original gall former, but instead is an inquiline parasite. Mordellistena is a stem borer and a gall borer, but it does not create galls.

The Mordellistena larva apparently takes over the gall, a gall which is probably initially occupied by, and created by, a Eurosta fly larva. Eurosta are gall flies, and they are the causal agent of some similar galls on Golden Rod species. For example this large gall, which was caused by the Goldenrod Gall Fly, Eurosta solidaginis:


After an initial gall is formed on Common Mugwort, then presumably a mother Mordellistena beetle lays an egg on the outer surface of the gall. That egg hatches and the young beetle larva chews its way into the gall. The beetle larva starts out by eating the soft inner tissues of the gall, and then probably it often goes on to eat the little Eurosta larva too! Talk about eating you out of house and home!

For more info on this type of interaction, read the results section in this paper (especially under the Differentiation of Mordellistina convicta section). https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/41/4/928/2046532

Perhaps the Mordellistena species in our case might also be Mordellistena convicta? On BugGuide that species has been reported from inside galls on Common Ragweed, Ambrosia artemisifolia, so maybe it could also bore into galls on Common Mugwort, a plant which is somewhat closely related?


I asked @borisb, a beetle expert, what he thought about this beetle, and Boris commented, "What you have resembles those WE [in Europe] have in ragwort (Mordellistena weisei-group), though ours do not produce galls." I am assuming that Boris means that this group of Mordellistena beetles in Europe bore into the stems of Ragwort plants (does Boris mean the plant Jacobaea vulgaris?), but that they do not cause galls to form. I explained to Boris that we assume that the Mordellistena beetles here do not actually cause the galls in the Common Mugwort, but instead they take advantage of galls already created by a gall-forming fly.

And incidentally, here is a 2008 paper about differentiating the larvae of that European group of Mordellistena beetles:


@megachile made an entry in the excellent gallformers.org database (a great new resource from @megachile and @jeffdc) for this still currently unknown stem gall:



Publicado el mayo 20, 2021 08:55 TARDE por susanhewitt susanhewitt


@susanhewitt Thanks for the great summary on what we have learned to date on the Common Mugwort galls! I would still love to figure out which Mordellistina species this is and it would be super interesting to discover which insect is the original gall former before the Mordellistina larvae bores into the gall. I'm happy to have helped uncover some of the story, but would love to learn the rest of it. The galls were abundant on Common Mugwort in southern New Jersey in the fall of 2020.

Publicado por jmole hace casi 3 años

I agree. This is a fascinating story and still very incompletely understood.

Maybe we can try to find some of these galls in a very early stage (perhaps now) and cut the galls open to try to find what we assume may be the fly larva that causes the gall to form in the first place.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 3 años

@srall -- you might like to read about this.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 3 años

I had the same thought. I'll check on the Mugworts tomorrow and see if there are any galls forming yet. :-)

Publicado por jmole hace casi 3 años

Great! Please do let me know if you find any.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 3 años

Enjoying following along with this story! I do feel like these galls suddenly popped up all over last year, but maybe it is just an increasing number of eyes on the lookout for such things.

Publicado por calconey hace casi 3 años

That's a good point. I don't know if maybe I was being more carefully observant last year, on the lookout for galls, or whether there was indeed a sudden increase in the number of these galls last summer.

I must say that I suspect the latter.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 3 años

Neat, thanks for tagging me. I've seen these many times.

Publicado por srall hace casi 3 años

@Thanks @srall -- have you. seen good numbers of them every year, or have they been increasing in recent years?

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 3 años

I've only been looking for them for two summers (before this one), so I can't really say if they are trending. Generally, in the fall, if I look at any large stand of mugwort I will find some.

Publicado por srall hace casi 3 años

I think, in general, with galls, mines, diseases, etc., people simply didn't photograph them, didn't notice them before, so they look explosive. For instance, I never knew I could ID oak shothole miners until @susanhewitt started posting them, but my oaks have had holes in them for a decade at least.

Publicado por srall hace casi 3 años

I imagine you are right in your opinion about these phenomena, although I do remember reading about the oak shot hole leaf miner that there was big outbreak a few years ago in the northeast.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 3 años

Images of an adult Mordellista sp. reared from one of these galls:


Publicado por susanhewitt hace más de 2 años

I just became aware of these galls about a month ago, and I was wondering if you all had any luck finding any of them last spring. It seems that this late in the season, all that's in the galls are the mordellid larvae, but based on the lack of updates- were the galls absent from the mugwort in the spring? I wonder if they might be a later season gall. In any case, ever since I first learned of them I've been seeing these stem swellings everywhere, they seem to be quite abundant. (I've seen them here in PA, as well as in CT and NJ when I've traveled.)

Publicado por cecildomyiidae hace más de 2 años

Yes, I could not find any of these galls in the spring this year, although I looked. I don't know when they first started appearing this year. I suppose it must be in the early summer? Or late summer?

Publicado por susanhewitt hace más de 2 años

That might make sense. I'll keep an eye out for them more this next season, too. Hopefully I'll be able to catch when they start appearing then.

Publicado por cecildomyiidae hace más de 2 años

I will also try more carefully to search month by month in an attempt to find out when it is that they start appearing.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace más de 2 años

I assume the mugwort needs to get fairly tall before these galls start forming.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace más de 2 años

Unfortunately I was not able to search for the galls until late summer this year due vacation and work schedule in the spring and early summer. Hoping to do better next year. Planning to rear some more galls this winter to see if I get more Mordellistena though.

Publicado por jmole hace más de 2 años

Hoping to find some earlier ones this year.

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 2 años

Susan, when I said "resembles those we [in Europe] have in ragwort", what I thought of was common mugwort.
There is a record of a species of uncertain identity (19th century!) from a tall Senecio, however.

I now tried the key of Liljeblad (1945) on your individual - without reaching a conclusion. But we can be sure it neither is M. convicta (legs dark, elytral vestiture stripy, tibial spurs yellow), nor M. aspersa (legs dark, tibial ridges of about same length, not reaching near opposite side of tibia), which also has been found in galls of Eurosta flies.
See the observation for more.

Publicado por borisb hace casi 2 años

Thanks @borisb!

Publicado por susanhewitt hace casi 2 años

Very interested in this thread. We have been collecting and rearing these galls as part of the Stone Barns Center Gall Project. We have seen mostly emergences of the same Mordellistena beetle (see https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149353922 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149356112 for gall images). Interestingly, I had one Braconid wasp (I think from subfamily Doryctinae, but that is yet to be confirmed) emerge from this gall (see https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149358703). Unfortunately the wasp emerged while I was away and my team missed it during gall checks (it is pretty tiny), so the specimen was badly desiccated by time I returned. Both this wasp and the Mordellistena beetles will be sent to the University of Guelph for DNA barcoding (likely in March 2023) and I will update if we receive any additional taxonomic information from the barcoding. We have collected many more samples for rearing this year, from a variety of locations, times, and maturity. While many Doryctinae are idiobiont ectoparasitoids of wood-boring beetle larvae and thus possibly this individual parasitized one of the Mordellistena larva, some members of the subfamily have been shown to be gall formers (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34563693/).

Publicado por stonebarnsecology hace alrededor de 1 año

@stonebarnsecology : Barcoding is an excellent idea - the common European it resembles is in the database, we are lucky:

In your specimen photographed, we can see the pubescence on elytra is in two colours:
Mainly golden, dark along suture. Just like in Mordellistena bicoloripilosa, and nothing else seen that would differ.
Morphological evidence in this genus is inferiour to genetics . . .

Publicado por borisb hace alrededor de 1 año

@stonebarnsecology thanks for posting additional information about the gall here! If you need any samples from New Jersey, please let me know. I would be happy to collect and send some of the galls to you if it would help your study. The galls are abundant on Artemisia vulgaris in New Jersey.

Publicado por jmole hace alrededor de 1 año

@borisb @jmole Thanks for the responses. I will keep you updated as the data comes in and as we get new emergences from the collected galls this spring/summer. Our current gall emergence specimens are scheduled to be sent to the University of Guelph for Sanger sequencing along with a bunch of samples from targeted pollinator collection, I'm just slowly working my way through data cross-checks with our ArcGIS system and making sure the photography for each specimen is up to par before we send the specimens out. Hopefully I will be finished in the next couple of weeks, and then it is in Guelph's hands.

Publicado por stonebarnsecology hace alrededor de 1 año

If helpful, here are some additional images of another Mordellistena specimen that emerged from a different group of galls on a nearby patch of mugwort in the same field (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/149376416).

Publicado por stonebarnsecology hace alrededor de 1 año

@borisb I think this observation https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/151166094 has a better view of the color of the pubescence you mentioned in your post above.

Publicado por stonebarnsecology hace alrededor de 1 año

@stonebarnsecology : Right - this about the median in range of variation (few golden hair in shoulder region, to narrowly dark along suture, and tips)

Publicado por borisb hace alrededor de 1 año

I created an iNaturalist project for tracking the observations of this unknown mugwort gall: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/unknown-stem-galls-on-common-mugwort

Also I haven't seen it mentioned yet, but there does seem to be a mugwort stem gall midge (Lasioptera artemisiae) in the old world: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37844399

Publicado por cofa hace 12 meses
Publicado por borisb hace 10 meses

Thanks Boris!

Publicado por susanhewitt hace 10 meses

@susanhewitt What an interesting mystery, Susan! I too have seen similar galls on mugwort.

Publicado por zitserm hace alrededor de 2 meses

came across this observation, and it looks a bit different than what i've seen of these galls, possibly a different mugwort species also? and the larva doesn't look like the usual mordellid: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/54002485

Publicado por cecildomyiidae hace 29 días

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