Diario del proyecto Fumaria muralis in the USA

01 de marzo de 2023

How to identify Fumaria muralis (Common Ramping-Fumitory)

Fumaria is usually considered a difficult genus to identify, mainly due to the small size of the features that are useful for identification and the fact that both flowers and fruits are needed for an accurate ID.

Pink-flowered fumitories, in particular, are difficult to identify and many F. muralis plants have been misidentified as F. officinalis or F. capreolata. Furthermore, as of March 2018, the Jepson eFlora and calflora.org databases did not list F. muralis as a species found in California, which has added to the confusion.

Photo tips:

  • https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/14150-fumitories-of-north-america
    This reference describes the photographic evidence and measurements required for accurate identification of fumitories. Close-up pictures of the inflorescence, corollas, sepals, and fruits are required for identification to species.

  • Note that fumitories cannot be identified to species without flowers and fruit.
  • It’s also important to take a photo of the entire plant.
  • If there are multiple plants in the picture, it’s helpful to crop your photo to focus on the plant of interest.

How to identify Fumaria muralis:

  • Height: Up to 100 cm (39.4 in).
  • Stems: The stems are initially erect then become sprawling or climbing. They are weak, many-branched and hairless.
  • Leaves: The first leaves grow singly and are 7-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in) long with a stalk 7-15 mm (0.3-0.6 in), and have three hairless leaflets. Later leaves become more compound and lobed. Mature leaves are three times deeply lobed with three or more leaflets, 3-15 mm (0.1-0.6 in) long. Alternate leaves form a rosette. Leaf segments are egg-shaped to triangular and usually three-lobed and hairless. The blade is gray-green to blue-green, flat, and up to 80 mm long x 40 mm wide (3.2 x 1.6 in).
  • Inflorescence: There are about 12 flowers per inflorescence.
  • Flowers: The corolla is pink (sometimes lightly so) and dark red or purple at the apex; it is 9-12 mm (0.35-0.47 in) in length.
  • Sepals: There are two sepals laterally attached to the corolla that are whitish with a green midrib, ovate to broadly oblong, dentate at margin in lower two thirds and measuring 3-5 mm (0.12-0.2 in) long and 1.5-3 mm (0.06-0.12 in) wide.
  • Fruit: The one-seeded fruit (achene) is spherical to broadly ovate with an almost smooth to slightly rugose (wrinkled) surface.
  • Habitat: Grows in temperate climates in moist, disturbed areas, particularly along streams and waterways. F. muralis prefers to grow in open, bare patches and is considered a weed of pastures, roadsides, gardens, footpaths, coastal shrub lands and disturbed areas.

Similar Species:

  • Fumaria capreolata (White Ramping-Fumitory)
  • Fumaria officinalis (Common Fumitory)
  • Fumaria bastardii (Tall Ramping-Fumitory)

How to differentiate F. muralis from F. officinalis:

  • F. officinalis has smaller purplish-pink flowers with 20-40 flowers per inflorescence; FF. muralis has larger pink flowers with about 12-14 flowers per inflorescence.
  • The upper petal in F. officinalis is much more spatulate than that of F. muralis and its sepals are much smaller.
  • F. officinalis fruits are distinctly broader than long with a truncate or emarginate apex.
  • The peduncle in F. officinalis is much shorter than the raceme.

How to differentiate F. muralis from F. capreolata:

  • F. capreolata has larger cream-colored flowers with a red-black tip; F. muralis has pink corollas with a dark red or purple tip.
  • The inflorescence ofF. capreolata is at least as long as the stalk and the lower flowers are recumbent (turn downward).
  • F. capreolata’s mature flowers develop a red stripe during fructification.
  • F. capreolata may hybridize with F. muralis.

How to differentiate F. muralis from F. bastardii:

  • F. bastardii has pink flowers with purple tips and more than 20 flowers per inflorescence; F. muralis has 12-14 flowers per inflorescence.
  • F. bastardii has smaller sepals and the peduncle is shorter than the inflorescence.
  • F. bastardiii has strongly rugose (wrinkled) fruits; F. muraliss has smooth or only slightly rugose fruits.
  • F. bastardii may hybridize with F. muralis.

How to differentiate F. muralis from F. densiflora

  • F. densiflora (dense-flowered fumitory) is very similar to F. muralis but tends to be more purplish-green, the young leaves are smaller with curled lobes, and it has smaller but more numerous flowers.

How to differentiate F. muralis from F. reuteri:

  • F. reuteri has larger flowers (11-13 mm long), subentire sepals, peduncle shorter than raceme, longer spur and stigma, central lobe as large as the lateral ones.


Publicado el marzo 1, 2023 03:09 TARDE por truthseqr truthseqr | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de enero de 2022

Watching the Spread of Fumaria muralis in the South San Francisco Bay Area

In 2017, I noticed two (2) populations of Fumaria muralis in the South San Francisco Bay Area within walking distance from my home. The first map below shows the location of these two populations.

Figure 1. Fumaria muralis populations at Baylands in March 2017.

The second map shows all 36 observations I've made at Baylands between March 2017 and January 2022 (~5 years).

Figure 2. Fumaria muralis populations at Baylands as of January 2022.

On January 6, 2022, I walked the distance (~6.8 miles) between the two points shown in Figure 1 , including around Pond A4. There were no F. muralis populations around Pond A4, and only one new one along the Bay Trail.

Fumaria muralis has been very successful in infiltrating the area surrounding the two lakes in the lower right of the map. There is now almost a continuous population around the two small lakes, except for the length of trail next to the highway (south).

Figure 3. Fumaria muralis populations around southeastern ponds at Baylands.

Fumaria muralis likes the waterways. There are established populations along the following creeks and rivers in Santa Clara County, all of which empty into the San Francisco Bay:

  • Calabazas Creek
  • Coyote Creek
  • Los Alamitos Creek
  • Los Gatos Creek
  • Guadalupe Creek
  • Guadalupe River
  • Saratoga Creek
Publicado el enero 5, 2022 04:18 TARDE por truthseqr truthseqr | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

10 de julio de 2021

Monitoring the Spread of Fumaria muralis in the US

It's interesting to watch the spread of this introduced species in the United States. The first occurrence was posted to iNaturalist in April 2012 from Moss Landing, CA. Since then, the number of reported observations has grown exponentially. It can now be found throughout California and 9 other states.

It started appearing on the West Coast, then several years later it was found along the southern coastline in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.




Publicado el julio 10, 2021 12:14 MAÑANA por truthseqr truthseqr | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

22 de marzo de 2018

Fumaria muralis

Ellen Dean, Curator, UC Davis Center for Plant Diversity confirmed that the specimen we sent them is, in fact, Fumaria muralis. The Assistant Curator keyed the plant in Flora Europaea and Flora Iberica and it went to Fumaria muralis. In the Jepson Manual, Vascular Flora of California, it would key to F. officinalis.

Calflora.org added Fumaria muralis to its list of known flora in California. This should help people make the correct identification of this species in the future.


UPDATED WIKIPEDIA REFERENCE (2018-03-25 through 2018-04-01)
Updated the Wikipedia reference for Fumaria muralis with more details and replaced the main photo, which was of F. capreolata, not F. muralis. Added photos of leaves, corollas, and dried seeds to aid identification.



Fumaria muralis in the South SF Bay Area seem to congregate near waterways. Some hot spots are: Sunnyvale Baylands, Ulistac Natural Area, Coyote Creek, Guadalupe Creek and Los Alamitos Creek. It looks like there's an almost continuous population of F. muralis along several miles of Los Alamitos and Guadalupe Creeks.

VOUCHERS (2018-03-02)
Vouchers sent to UC Davis herbarium and California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) lab on 2018-03-02.


How many species of Fumitories are there in the world?

The EuroPlusMed database lists 50 species of Fumaria:

One page in the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) shows 9 species of Fumaria, another page shows 38 species:

The Calflora and Jepson eFlora databases list only 3 species of Fumaria:

Other References:


Publicado el marzo 22, 2018 12:23 TARDE por truthseqr truthseqr | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario