25 de septiembre de 2023

BC Liverworts Not Yet Observed in iNaturalist System

Comparing the official list of BC liverworts to those documented in the iNaturalist system, I came up with this list of 66 species that have yet to be captured on iNat. Many of these species are hypermaritimeor wet coastal (Haida Gwaii, Central Coast, Western Vancouver Island, Prince Rupert), high alpine (2000+m) , far northern (top 1/2 of BC) or east facing in the rockies. I am annotating them in places where I have something to add.

x= leafy
y= thallose

Anastrepta orcadensis x, wet coastal
Anastrophyllum donnianum x, wet coastal
Anastrophyllum michauxii x, far north and rockies
Arnellia fennica x, far north and rockies
Calycularia laxa y, SW BC + NW BC-- Like Pellia but with scales above and below
Calypogeia neesiana x
Calypogeia suecica x
Cephalozia ambigua x
Cephalozia macounii x
Cephaloziella hampeana x
Cephaloziella phyllacantha x bogs amongst sphagnum
Cephaloziella rubella x possibly misreported so geographic range uncertain
Cephaloziella varians x
Dendrobazzania griffithiana x big, hypermaritime, known from NW coastal areas
Fuscocephaloziopsis catenulata x
Gymnomitrion commutatum x alpine
Gymnomitrion corallioides x alpine
Gymnomitrion pacificum x wet coastal of Brooks Penninsula and Haida Gwaii
Gymnomitrion revolutum x far north mountains
Haplomitrium hookeri x subalpine steep slopes in late snow melt areas
Herbertus hawaiiensis x coastal tundrascapes
Herbertus himalayensis x coastal tundrascapes
Jungermannia borealis x Lynn Canyon, Monashee Mtns
Jungermannia polaris x Rockies
Lepidozia sandvicensis x Prince Rupert & Central Coast down to Jervis Inlet
Lophozia ascendens x mostly interior but frequently misidentified
Macrodiplophyllum imbricatum X mostly coastal but also Smithers area
Macrodiplophyllum microdontum x entire coast of BC
Macrodiplophyllum plicatum x entire coast of BC
Mannia pilosa y = interior and rockies
Marchantia romanica x high alpine
Marsupella apiculata x alpine
Marsupella boeckii x alpine
Marsupella sprucei x alpine
Mesoptychia badensis x rockies
Mesoptychia collaris x rockies
Mesoptychia rutheana x rockies
Mesoptychia sahlbergii x rockies
Moerckia flotoviana y along drainage often considered synonymous of Moerckia hibernica
Nardia insecta x alpine
Nardia japonica x alpine
Neoorthocaulis binsteadii x rockies
Pellia columbiana y SW BC along muddy creeks and drainage. Like Pellia neesiana but with antheridia and archegonia on same plants
Plagiochila arctica x far northern
Plicanthus hirtellus x huge bushy and NW Coastal
Radula prolifera x Far northern
Riccia rhenana y in swamps, ponds and backwaters, aquatic
Scapania brevicaulis x
Scapania curta x
Scapania cuspiduligera x
Scapania hians x
Scapania hollandiae x
Scapania irrigua x
Scapania kaurinii x
Scapania mucronata x
Scapania ornithopodioides x
Scapania paludicola x
Scapania simmonsii x
Scapania spitsbergensis x
Solenostoma hyalinum x
Solenostoma obscurum x
Solenostoma sphaerocarpum x
Sphenolobus saxicola x on rock far NW corner of BC
Tritomaria exsecta x SW BC subalpine, also in Kootenays and Haida Gwaii
Tritomaria quinquedentata x subalpine across the whole province.
Tritomaria scitula x semiaquatic around falls and wet rocks Fraser Valley & Interior

Publicado el 25 de septiembre de 2023 20:57 por rambryum rambryum | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

12 de septiembre de 2023

Autumnal Riccia Season: Where to look and what you might find

A remarkably gifted bryologist suggested that I check out the shores of Shushwap Lake. When I got there, I was completely overwhelmed by the quantity of amazing Riccias along the shoreline. The pomegranite reds of Riccia frostii were overwhelming in their variety and abundance. This species, like many Riccias in BC seems to be underrepresented in collections, so there is much to be discovered about its distribution.

This time of year marks low waters on the rivers and lakes around most of the province. The genus Riccia seems to like water-retentive clays and silts of fine soils and sediments in seasonally drying habitats. If you are looking for a weekend treasure hunt, this is the time of year to get out to riverbanks, lakes, ponds and sloughs. I am pasting below google maps satellite views for examples of "good" Riccia habitats followed by the links to the 10 species that you might see looking happy at this time of year in those places. Please tag me if you see anything.

Fine silt and compacted clay river banks
Riccia frostii
Riccia cavernosa
Riccia hueberiana

Fine silt lake margins
Riccia frostii
Riccia cavernosa
Ricciocarpos natans

Drying lake beds
Riccia glauca
Riccia trichocarpa
Riccia beyrichiana

Subalpine sloughs
Riccia sorocarpa

Stagnant water bodies (shallow ponds, lakes, backwaters)
Riccia fluitans
Riccia rhenena (not yet reported from BC but possible and easily mistaken for fluitans)
Ricciocarpos natans

Publicado el 12 de septiembre de 2023 17:16 por rambryum rambryum | 1 observación | 11 comentarios | Deja un comentario

18 de abril de 2023

Eye-level Guide to the Evolving Genera of Orthotrichaceae

The family Orthotrichaceae is very abundant and diverse in the Pacific Northwest. With mature sporophytes, the family can be recognized on account of the typically erect sporophyte (see examples of Orthotrichum pulchellum and Ulota obtusiloba) and typically hairy cap (see examples of Pulvigera papillosa and Ulota intermedia) emerging gametophytes with linear leaves (see examples for Pulvigera pringlei and Lewinskya striata). Sadly, these features are not always obvious or consistent. However, if you are encountering an epiphyte with linear leaves or loose cushions, you should consider this family. They also show up on rock and cement, especially as you move inland. Altogether, there are about 35 species of Orthotrichaceae known to occur in British Columbia. These are spread out over 8 genera (Amphidium, Lewinskya, Orthotrichum, Nyholmiella, Plenogemma, Pulvigera, Ulota and Zygodon) many of which have been resurrected over the last decade to accomodate results of comprehensive reappraisals of diversity and evolution within the family. Some of the differences are microscopic, but for the purposes of this guide, I will try and emphasize the one visible with the naked eye or a 10x hand lens.

The table below has links to examples as well as key characters for distinguishing between these genera based on habit, habitat, sporophytes, asexual reproductive bodies and leaves. It is followed by a somewhat up-to-date list of species known to occur in BC pulled from the BC Conservation Data Center.

Eye Level Comparison for Genera of Orthotrichaceae

Genus Habitat Habit Sporophytes Asexual Propagules Leaves Microscopic cinchers
Amphidium Rock Small plant growing in compact cushions and turfs Short, ribbed when present, cap seemingly hairless Absent Linear, twisted when dry Lots of tiny papillae
Lewinskya On rocks and trees Plants >1cm tall in loose tufts Capsule typically without ribs, immersed to emergent, cap variously hairy Absent Long and linear, apices sharp, margins plane to revolute, various when dry Capsules with superficial stomata, cell walls of leaves thick and undulating
Orthotrichum Rocks and Trees Forming loose cushions to small tufts Capsules typically ribbed, cap variously hairy, sporophytes immersed to emergent Absent Linear, apices sharp, margins plane to recurved, variously erect-appressed to slightly twisted when dry Antheridia and archegonia on same plants, stomata on capsule immersed<. Cell walls of leaves thin and mostly straight./td>
Nyholmiella Epiphytic Loose tufts, shoots ~1cm long Sporophytes terminal, barely emergent, no hairs on the cap Abundant on upper leaf surface Linear, margins involute, tips bluntish, leaves erect-appressed when dry Septate propagules with seperate antheridia and archegonia-bearing plants
Plenogemma Coastal rock and trees Forming loose, yellow-green cushions Capsules rare Abundant as brown clusters at leaf tips Long, linear, very twisted when dry no need-- brown asexual propagules are the key feature here
Pulvigera Epiphytic, occasionally on concrete and rocks Long (~5cm+), lanky shoots forming flaccid tufts Hairy cap, capsules barely emerging from leaves In one species Long (~5mm), linear, erect and appressed in dried state Antheridia and Archegonia on seperate plants
Ulota Epiphytic Forming loose cushions and tufts Very hairy cap covering entire capsule on relatively long stalk (standing free from leaves) Absent Long and linear, very contorted and twisted when dry No need- hairy hairy cap and twisted leaves
Zygodon Mostly epiphytic, some species on Limestone and other calcareous substrates Forming bright yellow, small, dense cushions or sparse, loose and isolated tufts Small, hairless, standing above the leaves Abundant in some species opaque, yellow green and relatively broad Papillose leaf cells with long apical cell on leaf

Species of Orthotrichaceae in British Columbia

Amphidium californicum
Amphidium lapponicum
Amphidium mougeotii
Lewinskya affine
Lewinskya elegans
Lewinskya laevigatum
Lewinskya pylaisii
Lewinskya rupestre
Lewinskya speciosum
Lewinskya striatum
Orthotrichum alpestre
Orthotrichum anomalum
Orthotrichum consimile
Orthotrichum cupulatum
Orthotrichum diaphanum
Orthotrichum hallii
Orthotrichum pallens
Orthotrichum pellucidum
Orthotrichum pulchellum
Orthotrichum norrisii
Orthotrichum rivulare
Orthotrichum tenellum
Pulvigera lyellii (questionable if present?)
Pulvigera papillosa
Pulvigera pringlei
Plenogemma phyllantha
Nyholmiella obtusifolium
Ulota crispa
Ulota curvifolia
Ulota drummondii
Ulota intermedia
Ulota megalospora
Ulota obtusiuscula
Zygodon gracilis
Zygodon reinwardtii
Zygodon rupestris/Zygodon viridissimus (not sure where the line is here)

Publicado el 18 de abril de 2023 20:01 por rambryum rambryum | 7 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de abril de 2023

Boreal Spruce Zone Bryophytes

From Schofield (1988)

Aulacomnium palustre, Brachythecium albicans, Brachythecium rivulare, Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum, Calliergon stramineum, Calliergon giganteum, Campylium polygamum, Campylium stellatum, Ceratodon purpureus, Cinclidium stygium, Cratoneuron commutatum, Cratoneuron
filicinum, Cynodontium strumiferum, Dicranella schreber- iana, Dicranella subulata, Dicranum fuscescens, Dicranum scoparium, Dicranum polysetum, Distichium capillaceum, Drepanocladus aduncus, Drepanocladus revolvens, Drepanocladus uncinatus, Eurhynchium pulchellum, Fissidens osmundioides, Funaria hygrometrica, Gymnostomum recurvirostrum, Helodium blandowii, Herzogiellla striatella, Hylo- comium splendens, Hypnum lindbergii, Hypnum revolutum, Leptobryum pyriforme, Leskeella nervosa, Meesia longiseta, Meesia triquetra, Meesia uliginosa, Mnium spinulosum, Mnium thomsonii, Oncophorus wahlenbergii, Orthotrichum obtusifolium, Paludella squarrosa, Philonotis fontana, Plagiomnium ciliare, Plagiomnium ellipticum, Plagiothecium cavifolium, Plagiothecium denticulatum, Plagiothecium laetum, Platygyrium repens, Pleurozium schreberi, Pogonatum alpinum, Pogonatum urnigerum, Pohlia cruda, Pohlia nutans, Pohlia wahlenbergii, Polytrichum commune, Polytrichum juniperinum, Polytrichum piliferum, Polytrichum strictum, Pseudoleskeella tectorum, Pterigynandrum filiforme, Ptilium crista-castrensis, Pylaisiella polyantha, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, Rhytidium rugosum, Sphagnum centrale, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum majus, Sphagnum platyphyllum, Sphagnum recurvum, Sphagnum sub- secundum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Thuidium abietinum, Thuidium recognitum, Timmia austriaca, Tomenthypnum nitens.

Anastrophyllum minutum, Barbilophozia barbata, Barbilophozia hatcheri, Barbilophozia floerkei, Barbilophozia lycopodioides, Blepharostoma trichophyllum, Cephaloziella divaricata, Lophozia excisa, Lophozia ventricosa, Mylia anomala, Plagiochila porelloides, Ptilidium ciliare, Ptilidium

Publicado el 15 de abril de 2023 23:27 por rambryum rambryum | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Bryos of Northern Boreal -- Arctic Affinities

From Schofield (1988)

Anastrophyllum saxicola
Arnellia fennica
Bucegia romanica
Cephalozia macounii
Gymnomitrion apiculatum
Gymnomitrion corallioides
Marsupella condensata
Marsupella revoluta
Plagiochila arctica
Radula prolifera
Scapania simmonsii
Scapania spitzbergensis

Anoectangium sendtnerianum (still valid?)
Aulacomnium acuminatum (turgidum?)
Bryobrittonia pellucida (now longipes?)
Cinclidium arcticum
Encalypta brevicolla
Encalypta longicolla
Hygrohypnum polare
Hypnum bambergeri
Hypnum procerrimum
Mielichhoferia mielichhoferi
Oreas martiana
Psilopilum cavifolium
Splachnum luteum

Publicado el 15 de abril de 2023 23:22 por rambryum rambryum | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

03 de marzo de 2023

Making Sense of Moss Cushions on Rock

The many cushion mosses on rock can be rather confusing. In trying to figure it out for myself, I have put together this table that might be useful for others. Each species is linked to "research grade" observations in iNaturalist and an illustration from other places on the web (Flora of N. Am, Eflora BC, British Bryological Society Treatments)

Species Leaf Length Margins undulating Clear hairpoint present Contortion in dry state Colour Habitat Other Features Illustrations
Grimmia torquata ~1.5 mm No Present, very small Leaves spirally twisted around stem Dark Green Shaded siliceous rock along vertical faces, sea level to subalpine Forms exceedingly dense cushions Illustration
Anoectangium aestevium <2 mm Absent Absent slightly contorted Bright yellow-green Open calcareous-siliceous rock, Sea level to alpine Bright yellow leaves, relatively uncontorted leaves are unique Illustration
Amphidium californica 2-4 mm No Absent Leaves twisted but not around stem Emerald Green Shaded siliceous rock crevices, Sea level to montane Leaf margin toothed near tip Illustration
Amphidium laponnica 2-3 mm Absent Absent Leaves twisted but not around stem Emerald green Shaded or open silicious rock, Sea level to Subalpine Short sporophytes with ridges capsules common, leaf margins smooth throughout Illustration
Tortella tortuosa 3-7 mm Yes Absent Leaves contorted Brown below, yellow green above Calcareous and silicious rock, occasionally trees, all elevations Forms loose cushions, leaf bases are clear under hand lens Illustration
Gymnostomum aeruginosum ~1 mm Absent Absent Slightly twisted Reddish below, dull green above Calcareous rock, All elevations Capsules often present, lacking teeth Illustration
Hymenostylium recurvoistre ~1 mm Absent Absent Appressed and wavy when dry Light green Calcareous rock, all elevations Typically encrusted with lime Illustration
Hymenoloma crispula 2-3.5 mm Absent Absent Strongly contorted and curled Yellow green Fully Exposed Calcareous and Siliceous Rock, Sea Level to Alpine Tall, slender, erect sporophytes common Illustration
Publicado el 3 de marzo de 2023 03:05 por rambryum rambryum | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

01 de marzo de 2023

Wet Log Liverworts and Mosses

One of the best place to find a reliable assemblage of bryophytes is the common damp rotting log along the forest floor. If you are trying the learn basic features and common species, said substrate is a good place to start. All around the decaying bark and wood are a set of microhabitats that dependably host a reliable assortment of mosses and liverworts. The following is a non-exhaustive list of bryophytes common to log microhabitats in the PNW. Each species is linked to "research grade" observations of these taxa in the inaturalist system so you can get a sense of what you are looking for. (l) is liverwort, (m) is moss, t is upright, ~ is prostrate and * connotes asexual reproductive bodies are common.

If you like habitat guides to bryophytes, I cannot recommend @david1945wagner 's guide to Important Bryophyte Habitats of Western Oregon -- broadly applicable to the regions between Northern California up to Coastal Alaska.

Over all exposed surfaces
Hypnum circinale (m)~
Pseudoisothecium stoloniferum (m)~
Scapania bolanderi (l)~
Rhizomnium glabrescens (m)t
Kindbergia oregana (m)~
Plagiothecium undulatum (m)~
Bazzania denudata
(l) (very wet forests)~

Smooth, exposed wood
Lophocolea bidentata (l)~
Scapania umbrosa

Decaying wood
Cephalozia bicuspitata (l)~
Calypogeia mulleriana (l)~ *
Fuscocephaloziopsis connivens (l)~
Lepidozia reptans

In deeply shaded regions
Tetraphis pellucida (m) t *
Pseudotaxiphyllum elegans
(m)~ *

On cut log ends
Riccardia latifrons (l)~
Cephalozia bicuspitata (l)~

Publicado el 1 de marzo de 2023 17:22 por rambryum rambryum | 5 comentarios | Deja un comentario

20 de febrero de 2023

The genus Atrichum in the Pacific Northwest

Atrichum is another genus that is easy to recognize in the field on account of its large, upright stature, toothy leaves, lines of cells along the middle of the leaf and the long, hairless cap that covers the capsule, making it the only hairless "haircap" moss genus in the region. There are four species of Atrichum known to occur in the British Columbia and adjacent regions. Only two of them seem to be common, though there is cause to be on the lookout for the other two.

I, among others, have found it challenging to distinguish between Atrichum selwynii and A. undulatum. They both have undulating, toothy leaves and they both grow at low elevations on variations of soil bank habitat. A. selwynii is considered a native species and tends to be in more "natural" environments, while A. undulatum is considered introduced and lover of "weedy" environments.

Ireland (1969) elaborated on the distinction:

Atrichum selwynii has often been confused with A. undulatum and its varieties but the former differs by its dioicous condition, smooth calyptra, large, thin-walled, noncollenchymatous, usually irregularly angled leaf cells (often more than 30 X 24 um), numerous clustered sporophytes (sometimes over three per perichaetium), and straight or slightly arcuate capsule. In contrast, A. undulatum, including its varieties, is distinguished by its polyoicous or monoicous condition, hispid-tipped calyptra, smaller, thickwalled, collenchyinatous, rounded leaf cells (rarely reaching 30 X 24 um), few clustered sporophytes (never over three per perichaetium), and often strongly arcuate capsule.

This Schofield comment in his Some Common Mosses of British Columbia is unfortunately hard to parse:

From A. undulatum it (A. selwynii) is most readily distinguished by the sharper marginal teeth and more sharply acute apices compared to the blunter points of A. selwynii.

The other two species have very few records, but both A. tenellum and A. flavisetum are reported from low elevation habitats. Below are two tables to help me (and hopefully you) distinguish between these 4 taxa based on (1)sporophyte characters visible with a hand lens and (2) Vegetative characters.

Sporophytic Characters of Atrichum Species in the PNW

Species Habitat Arrangement of Antheridia and Archegonia Capsule Orientation Sporophytes per gametophyte Sporophyte Position
A. selwynii Soil & Sediment Banks, Tree Roots On seperate plants straight to slightly arched, erect to slightly inclined variable, often 3+ Terminal
A. undulatum "weedy" soil habitats Typically on same plant, different locations Arched to horizontal Typically solitary Terminal
A. tenellum Soil banks along ditches and trails, especially in clearings On seperate plants Erect to inclined, sometimes slightly arched 1 Terminal
A. flavisetum Soil banks Same location on same plant straight, erect or inclined 2-6 Appears lateral

Vegetative Characters of Atrichum Species in the PNW

Species Leaf arrangement Leaf teeth Leaf Apices Lamellae Number Lamellae Height Unudulations Costa
A. selwynii "distinctly rosulate" Crowded, large Acute to obtuse 2-6 8-12 Prominent Percurrent
A. undulatum Crowded towards apex Large, crowded Acute 2-6 2-4 Prominent Percurrent
A. tenellum Evenly distributed Small and distant Acute 2-5 4-7 Absent or barely present Percurrent
A. flavisetum appx. 10 / growth increment Small from base to tip Acute 4-6 2-4 Prominent in distal half Percurrent to excurrent

Relevant links
Flora of North America Treatment of the Genus Atrichum
California Moss Eflora Treatment of the Genus Atrichum

Publicado el 20 de febrero de 2023 17:42 por rambryum rambryum | 6 comentarios | Deja un comentario

24 de enero de 2023

Bryophyte Plates

Inspired by the incredible works of @michael-lueth , I have been trying to arrange a few bryophyte observations into "plate" format. My versions are pale imitations that lack the care, comprehensiveness and attention to detail shown in Leuth's (sold out) three-volume Mosses of Europe. Never the less, it has been a great pleasure to spend a bit of time thinking about how to represent bryophytes aesthetically while reflecting their habitats, growth habits, anatomical features, diagnostic characters and reproductive parts. I've been putting mine together in GIMP and they seem to take about one hour of fiddling. I encourage anyone with the luxury of free time to (1) check out Michael Lueth's work as a photographer and cataloguer of bryodiversity and (2) to try something like it yourself. It is like colouring or sudoku for the bryologically maladjusted.

Publicado el 24 de enero de 2023 04:36 por rambryum rambryum | 3 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

19 de enero de 2023

A dichotomous key to Radula in the Pacific Northwest

1a. Plants very large (5+cm long), free from substrate with auriculate dorsal lobe and giant solitary oil bodies ocuppying most of cell lumen. . . . Radula auriculata
1b. Plants smaller, growing close to if not appressed to substrate, oil bodies absent, small or more than 1/cell . . .2

2a. Plants frequently gemmiferous along leaf margins, leafy stems ~1.5 to 2.5mm wide, leaves tightly overlapping. . . Radula complanata
2b. Plants withouth gemmae, leafy stems <1.5mm wide, vegetative leaves usually distant . . . 3

3a. Plant with abundant small shoots emerging from axils of leaves, giving a plumose or feathered appearance to the main shoots . . . Radula obtusiloba ssp. polyclada.
3b. Plants lacking small axillary branches, not plumose, often with linear antheridial shoots of tightly overlapping leaves . . . Radula bolanderi.

Of these species, Radula complanata is by far the most common, known to be epiphytic and epilithic from sea level to montane regions. It is particularly abundant on shrubs and alder.

Radula auriculata seems to be confined to hypermaritime locations north of Vancouver Island. I have seen it growing on seashore logs and shrubs.

Radula obtusiloba ssp. polyclada is described in both the Bryophyte Flora of North America treatment of the genus as well as Godfrey's as being hypermaritime on rock and occasionally trees, but I have seen it 5km inland in relatively dry settings growing on alder and conifer bark.

Radula bolanderi is ambient in moist habitats but so small as to easily avoid notice. It is an epiphyte and seems to have a particular fondness for shrubs.

Publicado el 19 de enero de 2023 01:04 por rambryum rambryum | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario