Diario del proyecto Oxalis (Sorrels) of southern Africa

23 de mayo de 2024

New Sorrel Species and data.

As in many of our families, the Oxalidaceae in southern Africa have several undescribed species. The number is usually unknown because some turn out to be subspecies or varieties, and others odd forms of described species.

However, getting help with collecting, mapping and understanding undescribed species requires some tag to communicate these taxa amongst ourselves.
The projects on iNaturalist are:

Range extensions

These are usually documented via the project

See them here using the field filter: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=any&taxon_id=47758&verifiable=any&field:Range%20extension%20documentation=

These are the species documented with range extensions using the field.

Undescribed Species

These are usually documented via the project

These are the observations of undescribed species documented with the undescribed species field.

The following field or MS names are in use (these names may be refined over time):
Oxalis sudaensis 4
Oxalis prettyheart 2

1 observation only:
Oxalis cf canaliculata
Oxalis cf cuneata helme
Oxalis glaucous crocea MS
Oxalis grammatopetala

Oxalis lateriflora
Oxalis odorata
Oxalis sp nov Klawer
Oxalis sp10 cf canaliculata is this different from Oxalis cf canaliculata?
Oxalis steinkopf

Oxalis truncatula brian
Oxalis unifoliolate amblyosepala

Note: the observations retain their fields and names, even after having been described, for statistical purposes.
So those identified as "Oxalis" are usually still undescribed, but those with species names have been described and identified.

Publicado el mayo 23, 2024 09:17 MAÑANA por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

21 de mayo de 2024

Petalomaniacs & Smuts & Polymorphism

Oxalis has some interesting peculiarities.
For fun we feature them here. Petalomaniacs and Polymorphisms and Smuts


Doubles turn up every now and then. Most are complete and feature the petals, but occasionally plants do half a job.
If you see any Oxalis with multiple copies of the petals, Please add the entry "Petalomaniac" to the [Oxalis features] observation field.
See examples here:

Partial petalomaniac here: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/211454993


Some species and populations have different colour morphs. In populations with different colours, please estimate or record the ratios and add it to the Colour Polymorphism project. (https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/colour-polymorphism-in-the-cape-flora)
See examples here:

Sorrel Smut Thecaphora capensis

Sorrel Smut is a fungus that attacks the anthers, rendering the plant pollen sterile. This is essentially a plant Sexually Transmitted Disease that replaces the plant pollen with its fungal spores.
It can easily be seen by creating a "dark" tube to the flower. Careful inspection can also reveal the pollen dust on the petals. Watch out for it please, and if seen, please remember to duplicate the observation to record the fungus, and to add the interaction.
Originally thought to only infect one Oxalis species, we now know it from many more.

Publicado el mayo 21, 2024 08:22 TARDE por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 3 comentarios | Deja un comentario


To help move some of the observations out of Genus level (we have 4,293 out of 37,566 observations - so 11%) we have a few complexes to act as holding bins.
(a complex on iNat is defined as a group of species that cannot easily be told apart by photos because they are so similar. In Oxalis, this often means that bulbs are required for further identification)

These are:

Complex Oxalis bowiei Midlands Sorrel Complex (new 165)

  • Oxalis anthelmintica 1
  • Oxalis bowiei Midland Sorrel 235
  • Oxalis semiloba Common Sorrel 52
  • Oxalis sp nov ?

Complex Oxalis depressa-pocockiae Depcock Sorrels 758

  • Oxalis depressa Early Sorrel 604
  • Oxalis pocockiae Coconut Sorrel 124

Complex Oxalis eckloniana-nidulans Bulbil and Bulb Sorrels 775

  • Oxalis eckloniana Pink Sorrel 326
  • Oxalis nidulans Bulbil Sorrel 20

Complex Oxalis multicaulis-recticaulis-versicolor Multi-rectiverse Sorrels 608

  • Oxalis multicaulis Multistem Sorrel 152
  • Oxalis recticaulis Straight Sorrel 35
  • Oxalis versicolor Candycane Sorrel 396

Complex Oxalis pardales Streakyleaf Sorrels 347

  • Oxalis camelopardalis 4
  • Oxalis capillacea Hairleaf Sorrel 72
  • Oxalis confertifolia Dense Sorrel 57
  • Oxalis grammophylla 14
  • Oxalis heidelbergensis 0
  • Oxalis leptogramma Willowy Sorrel 49
  • Oxalis lineolata 3
  • Oxalis massoniana Nieuwoudtville Sorrel 35
  • Oxalis melanograpta 6
  • Oxalis pardalis 1
  • Oxalis robinsonii 4

Which other groups might benefit from a complex?

Publicado el mayo 21, 2024 01:36 TARDE por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 3 comentarios | Deja un comentario

03 de julio de 2023

Exciting New Paper out on Sorrel Weevils.


Revision of the enigmatic South African Cryptolaryngini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), with description of a new genus and twenty-two new species.
Haran J.M., Marvaldi A.E., Benoit L., Oberlander K., Stals R. & Oberprieler R.G. 2023. European Journal of Taxonomy 877: 1–89. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2023.877.2151

The weevil genus Cryptolarynx Van Schalkwyk, 1966 is endemic to the Northern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. The two previously known species of the genus, C. vitis (Marshall, 1957) and C. estriatus (Marshall, 1957), have an aberrant globular body and head shape, which has made it difficult to place the genus into the classification systems of the Curculionoidea.
This paper presents the description of 21 new species of Cryptolarynx from South Africa ( ... C. oberprieleri ... C. oberlanderi ...) and of one new genus with species, Hadrocryptolarynx major. also from South Africa. A redescription of the genus Cryptolarynx is provided to incorporate the characters of the new species.
The plant genus Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) is recorded as larval host for several species of Cryptolarynx and for Hadrocryptolarynx as their larvae develop in the subterranean bulbs of members of the genus, and the egg, larva and pupa of C. variabilis are described.
The characters of the Cryptolarynx larva confirm that Cryptolaryngini are an early-diverging group of Curculionidae, with a placement among taxa currently classified in the subfamily Brachycerinae sensu lato,and although their exact taxonomic position remains unresolved, some larval characters, and also pupal ones, suggest a close relationship between Cryptolaryngini and Stenopelmus Schoenherr.
Potential use of species of Cryptolarynx in the biological control of weedy South African species of Oxalis is discussed.

Life History
Weevils are active in the austral winter (adults Jun-Oct, peaking July and August, rarely to Feb).
For C. variabilis in Stellenbosch; first adults emerge Jun-Jul and feed on aerial vegetation, resting on the soil by the stems, active in open areas during the hottest hours. Mating in July; gravid females end July; oviposition in September directly onto immature (non-sclerified) bulbs of Oxalis pes-caprae and O. purpurea, as these begin to wilt. Females dig vertically using mandibles. Larvae in Oxalis bulbs from Dec-Mar, but larvae only feed after bulbs sclerify. Larvae entirely consume the bulb, do not produce frass, size of adult depends on bulb size, over a fair range of sizes. Larvae go inactive in summer and pupate in March, pupae being of very short duration. Teneral remain in the bulbs, emerging via a circular basal or lateral hole in sclera in July. (Other species emerge at different times, suggesting chronologically specific life cycles).

Host plants
Closely associated with Oxalis. The weevils track their host plants by emerging early in the growing season in autumn, being active as adults during and after flowering, and then spending the heat and drought of summer as larvae inside the subterranean bulbs.
C. variabilis & C. oberprieleri: larvae on O. pes-caprae, O. purpurea and O. glabra.
(Other species by association only, but co-occurance prevents linking weevils to a specific Oxalis species).
Adults are polyphagous, feeding on leaves of several plant species (e.g. Grapes, Moraea, grasses, Arctotheca calendula), apparently avoiding leaves of their own larval host plants (unless, in labs, no other food is available) The larval damage to Oxalis bulbs is variable - C. variabilis: 5-25% of bulbs attacked.
No parasitoids are known. Adults are found in spider webs under stones, and larvae are eaten by rodents consuming Oxalis bulbs.

Adults diurnal, on the soil surface around larval hosts. Active during the warmer hours (occ. climbing onto vegetation in large numbers on hot afternoons). Can run very fast on hot sands. At sunset they hide in little holes under debris, stones or leaves that cover the ground. The head, eyes and mandibles seem to be for digging holes and tunnels in soil. Well camouflaged, feign death and retract head and appendages.
Seven months after a natural fire near Montagu, a large migration of adults of C. pyrophilus from unburnt vegetation to the burnt areas, where Oxalis was emerging, was noticed. Weevils appear to detect prolific Oxalis growth and flowering post fire from a distance away.

Six species of Cryptolarynx left in abeyance . Additional putative undescribed species morphologically different and genetic distanced. Not described as only female specimens , or as longer series are needed.

Read the paper for more.

Congratulations to Kenneth for his Weevil.

Publicado el julio 3, 2023 01:03 TARDE por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario

12 de mayo de 2023

Recent Literature

Recent Literature

Publicado el mayo 12, 2023 10:53 MAÑANA por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

13 de marzo de 2023

Alien Species.

Publicado el marzo 13, 2023 09:52 MAÑANA por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Sorrel Status March 2023

25,371 observations of 194 species by 2,981 observers

50,796 identifications by 741 identifiers

20,577 Research Grade
4,588 Need Identifications: help ID them here
154 Captive

Top species

2640 Oxalis obtusa Reverse Sorrel
2423 Oxalis purpurea Purple Sorrel
2031 Oxalis pes-caprae Goatfoot Sorrel

1155 Oxalis polyphylla Manyleaf Sorrel
1053 Oxalis luteola Golden Sorrel
827 Oxalis corniculata Creeping Woodsorrel
744 Oxalis obliquifolia Skewleaf Sorrel
737 Oxalis hirta Tree Sorrel
690 Oxalis caprina Goat Sorrel
550 Oxalis flava Yellow Sorrel

486 Oxalis truncatula Fynbos Sorrel
482 Oxalis commutata Alternating Sorrel
433 Oxalis glabra Carpet Sorrel
428 Oxalis ciliaris Fringe Sorrel

399 Oxalis incarnata Forest Sorrel
399 Oxalis tenuifolia Thinleaf Sorrel
374 Oxalis depressa Early Sorrel
363 Oxalis lanata Woolly Sorrel
349 Oxalis punctata Dotted Sorrel

279 Oxalis smithiana Windmill Sorrel
230 Oxalis imbricata Tile Sorrel
216 Oxalis heterophylla Differleaf Sorrel
200 Oxalis eckloniana Pink Sorrel

193 Oxalis latifolia Garden Pink-Sorrel
190 Oxalis stellata Star Sorrel
176 Oxalis pendulifolia Hangleaf Sorrel
156 Oxalis bifida Biffed Sorrel
154 Oxalis dentata Tooth Sorrel

135 Oxalis livida Blue Sorrel
133 Oxalis convexula Cushion Sorrel
114 Oxalis pusilla Carpet Sorrel
107 Oxalis engleriana Gland Sorrel
106 Oxalis tomentosa Palmtree Sorrel
101 Oxalis compressa Squashed Sorrel
101 Oxalis multicaulis Multistem Sorrel

Top observers (>200 observations)

1 tonyrebelo 2,672
2 daverichardson 470
3 mr_fab 467
4 ydnewp2 358
5 botaneek 353
6 nicky 347
7 steven_molteno 333
8 petrabroddle 304
9 grantforbes 285
10 hhodgson 263
11 paulc12 256
12 jacquesmerwe923 232
13 vynbos 227
14 carinalochner 213

Top species recorders (>40 species)

1 mr_fab 128
2 botaneek 106
3 tonyrebelo 90
4 paulc12 56
5 elmarvrooyen 41
6 petrabroddle 40

Top identfiers (300 more more identifications)

1 kenneth_oberlander 25,247
2 alanhorstmann 3,221
3 tonyrebelo 3,094
4 jeremygilmore 1,916
5 paulc12 979
6 dianastuder 798
7 venturefoth 571
8 sedgesrock 397
9 elmarvrooyen 363
10 rion_c 332
11 vynbos 316
12 jwicht 305

Publicado el marzo 13, 2023 07:56 MAÑANA por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario