Archivos de diario de enero 2023

07 de enero de 2023

Loose insect research guide (WIP)

  1. Taxonomy
  2. Defensive behaviors
  3. Mating behaviors
  4. Nymphs/Larvae
  5. Feeding behaviors
  6. Other behaviors
  7. Timing of life history
  8. Biogeography
  9. Physiology
  10. Morphology/Anatomy
  11. Phylogenetics and evolution
  12. Interactions with other living and non living things (Endosymbionts, Parasites, Climate)
  13. Identification/collection
  14. Rearing
  15. Key making/species description

Loosely ordered for now

Publicado el enero 7, 2023 11:54 TARDE por mecopteron_bouillon mecopteron_bouillon | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

11 de enero de 2023

Protura (Personal notes) (WIP)

Disclaimer: All of the information here should not yet be taken as credible and is subject to change. As I am researching this taxon I am adapting and changing this document to reflect the current research and taxonomy. Sentences or phrases marked with question marks are aspects that I am specifically looking to confirm (or refute), but that does not mean that they are necessarily incorrect or that sentences and phrases that are not marked with question marks are the current consensus. The citations currently present are also subject to change, as there may be an eventual shift to paragraphs rather than simply note taking. Basically to summarize every part of this journal post is tentative.

General Info:
Common names: Coneheads
Etymology: First tail¹
Size range: 0.6–1.5mm¹
Habitats (exclusively humid?):Acidic soils(?), Rotting wood, Leaflitter, Moss. Associated with the leaflitter and moss near trees¹
Discovery: Discovered in 1907 in NY¹
Diet: Fungi¹
Vagility: Protura supposedly have low vagility(?) due to sensitivity towards desiccation, saline water, and restricted habitat.¹
Endemism/Indigenism: ~56% species are endemic with 30% of species being historically Gondwanan in distribution¹ (As the article that I have seen this in first is just talking about New Zealand I am unsure whether the 56% rate of endemism is to New Zealand, or worldwide for Protura)
Introduced/invasive species:
Two (currently unknown to me which) in New Zealand (from Europe?)¹
Distribution: New Zealand¹,

Methodologies of Collection:

Absent morphological traits (compared to basic insect morphology): Eyes, antennae, wings,
Abdominal segments: 9-12
Forelegs: Covered in sensory hairs (sensillae?), 5 segments,
Midlegs/Hindlegs: 5 segments

General: ~500 species split into 2(?) orders (THIS IS NOT ACCURATE)
Taxonomically Important characters: Spiracles, sperm, hairs,


Post Embryonic Development:
Anamorphogenesis: Anamorphogenesis

Interesting tidbits, future studies, and ideas:

  1. "The mean density of Protura was significantly higher in pine plantations
    than native broadleaf forests. Among native forests, Protura were most abundant
    under native beech (Nothofagus). these abundance patterns may reflect the
    association between Protura and mycorrhizal fungal communities in the soil,
    making Protura promising bioindicators of forest health, particular of exotic
    conifers in the Southern Hemisphere."¹


Cor J Vink (2011) New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity, Volume Two: Kingdom Animalia—Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, Ichnofossils, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 38:3, 281-282,

Articles to read (temp):

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Johnson, N., Scheu, S., Ramirez, K., et al., Global soil biodiversity atlas, Johnson, N.(editor), Scheu, S.(editor), Ramirez, K.(editor), Lemanceau, P.(editor), Eggleton, P.(editor), Jones, A.(editor), Moreira, F.(editor), Barrios, E.(editor), De Deyn, G.(editor), Briones, M.(editor), Kaneko, N.(editor), Kandeler, E.(editor), Wall, D.(editor), Six, J.(editor), Fierer, N.(editor), Jeffery, S.(editor), Lavelle, P.(editor), Putten, W.(editor), Singh, B.(editor), Miko, L.(editor), Hedlund, K.(editor), Orgiazzi, A.(editor), Chotte, J.(editor), Bardgett, R.(editor), Behan-Pelletier, V.(editor), Fraser, T.(editor), Montanarella, L.(editor), Publications Office, 2016,

Galli L, Shrubovych J, Bu Y, Zinni M (2018) Genera of the Protura of the World: diagnosis, distribution, and key. ZooKeys 772: 1-45.

Shrubovych, J.; Smykla, J.; Bernard, E.C. Protura in Arctic Regions, with Description of Mastodonentomon n. gen. (Acerentomidae, Nipponentominae) and a Key to Known Arctic Taxa. Insects 2020, 11, 173.

Bluhm SL, Potapov AM, Shrubovych J, Ammerschubert S, Polle A, Scheu S. Protura are unique: first evidence of specialized feeding on ectomycorrhizal fungi in soil invertebrates. BMC Ecol. 2019 Feb 22;19(1):10.

Jason A. Hansen, Ernest C. Bernard, and J. Kevin Moulton "A Defensive Behavior of Acerentulus confinis (Berlese) (Protura: Acerentomidae)," Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 112(1), 43-46, (1 January 2010).

Szeptycki, Andrzej. "Catalog of the world Protura." Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia-Series B: Invertebrata 50.1 (2007): 1-210.

H. E. Ewing, The Protura of North America, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 33, Issue 3, 1 September 1940, Pages 495–551,

Robert T. Allen "Studies on the North American Protura 1: catalogue and atlas of the Protura of North America; description of new species; key to the species of Eosentomon," Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 156(1), 97-116, (1 June 2007).[97:SOTNAP]2.0.CO;2

Galli, L. (2022). Updates to Szeptycki’s check-list of the Protura of the World. Biogeographia – The Journal of Integrative Biogeography, 37(2). Retrieved from

Machida, Ryuichiro, and Ichiro Takahashi. "Rearing technique for proturans (Hexapoda: Protura)." Pedobiologia 48.3 (2004): 227-229.

Loris Galli, Matteo Capurro, Elisa Colasanto, Tony Molyneux, Andy Murray, Carlo Torti, Matteo Zinni "A synopsis of the ecology of Protura (Arthropoda: Hexapoda)," Revue suisse de Zoologie, 126(2), 155-164, (1 January 2020)

Thibaud, J. C., Sendra, A., & Shrubovych, J. (2022). Historical and global scale catalogue of diplurologists (1842-2019) and proturologists (1907-2020). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 127(1), 19-36.

Dindal, D. L. (Ed.). (1990). Soil biology guide (No. 631.46 D5). New York: Wiley.

Böhm, Alexander, et al. "Confocal imaging of the exo-and endoskeleton of Protura after nondestructive DNA extraction." Soil Organisms 83.3 (2011): 335-345.

Galli, L., Capurro, M., Colasanto, E., Molyneux, T., Murray, A., Torti, C., & Zinni, M. (2020). A synopsis of the ecology of Protura (Arthropoda: Hexapoda). Revue suisse de Zoologie, 126(2), 155-164.

Hansen, J. A., Bernard, E. C., & Moulton, J. K. (2010). A defensive behavior of Acerentulus confinis (Berlese)(Protura: Acerentomidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 112(1), 43-46.

Dell’Ampio, E., Szucsich, N. U., & Pass, G. (2011). Protura and molecular phylogenetics: status quo of a young love. Soil Organisms, 83(3), 347-358.

Luan, Y. X., Mallatt, J. M., Xie, R. D., Yang, Y. M., & Yin, W. Y. (2005). The phylogenetic positions of three basal-hexapod groups (Protura, Diplura, and Collembola) based on ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 22(7), 1579-1592.

Carapelli, A., Bu, Y., Chen, W. J., Nardi, F., Leo, C., Frati, F., & Luan, Y. X. (2019). Going deeper into high and low phylogenetic relationships of Protura. Genes, 10(4), 292.

Xué, L., Dallai, R., & Yin, W. Y. (1993). Tracheal ultrastructure of protura (Insecta: Apterygota). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 22(1), 13-23.

Rusek, J., Shrubovych, J., & Szeptycki, A. (2012). Head porotaxy and chaetotaxy of order Acerentomata (Protura). Zootaxa, 3262(1), 54-61.

Dittrich, K., & Wipfler, B. (2021). A review of the hexapod tracheal system with a focus on the apterygote groups. Arthropod Structure & Development, 63, 101072.

Online resources:

Publicado el enero 11, 2023 01:25 MAÑANA por mecopteron_bouillon mecopteron_bouillon | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Link for inaturalist's data surrounding Mecoptera

Publicado el enero 11, 2023 02:26 MAÑANA por mecopteron_bouillon mecopteron_bouillon | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario